Nutrient Glossary
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Acetyl-L-carnitine:  Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an ester of the trimethylated amino acid, L-carnitine, and is synthesized in the brain, liver and kidney by a specific enzyme carnitine acetyltransferase, which declines with age in animals. ALC facilitates the uptake of acetyl-groups into the mitochondria during fatty acid oxidation, enhances acetylcholine production and stimulates protein and membrane phospholipid synthesis. ALC is actively transported across the blood-brain barrier. It influences the cholinergic system as a cholinergic receptor agonist (facilitator) and may also promote synthesis and release of acetylcholine. More generally, ALC participates in cellular energy production and in maintenance and repair processes in neurons.

ALC aids in the transport of substances across the membrane of mitochondria, thereby participating in the production of energy within the brain. ALC reverses the age-related decline in the number of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors on the neuron membrane. ALC elevates the levels of neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF). The neurotrophins are a family of structurally related proteins that function during development to guide the differentiation and growth of neurons. They also participate in the maintenance of adult neurons and are important in the repair of damage.

ALC reduces deficits in brain energy metabolism and phospholipid metabolism in rats by aiding mitochondrial function. ALC improves nerve regeneration in rats and protects neurons from the toxicity of mitochondrial uncouplers or inhibitors. Feeding senescent rats with ALC restores levels of this metabolite to those found in tissues of young rats. Treatment of these rats with ALC restores cardiolipin in mitochondrial membranes to levels which are found in younger rats. Cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol) is a phospholipid which is biosynthesized and concentrated almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is the only cardiolipid whose levels are found to be reduced in the mitochondria of older rats. Maximal activity of cytochrome c oxidase, necessary for cellular energetics, appears to depend upon cardiolipin levels. Clinical trials with ALC showed some improvements in cognitive function and improvement in memory, visuospatial capacity, vocabulary recall, cooperation, sociability and attention.

Adaptogens: Plant-based materials capable of increasing an organism’s resistance to stressors of differing origin. Adaptogens are believed to reinforce (increase) the non-specific power of resistance of the body against physical, chemical or biological noxious agents. By definition, they must have a normalizing influence independent of the physical condition of the organism, must be innocuous, and must not influence normal body functions more than required to achieve a stable condition.

Adaptogen Blend: Proprietary blend of Eleutherococcus senticosus (leaf, stem, root), Schisandra chinensis (seed), Aralia mandshurica (flower), Crataegus oxyacantha (leaf), Viburnum sargenti (leaf, berry) , Glycyrrhiza uralensis (root), Rhaponticum carthamoides (root), Rhodiola rosea (flower), Sorbus aucuparia (whole plant), and Iconotus obliquus (root).

Alpha-glycerolphosphoryl choline (alpha-GPC): Alpha-glycerolphosphoryl choline (alpha-GPC) is a premier choline donor. Choline is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Clinical studies indicate that alpha-GPC assists with memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. Alpha-GPC has also been shown to augment mind-to muscle neural communication, helping to optimize muscular power output, sharpen agility and reaction times, and delay mental fatigue. Studies demonstrate enhanced release of growth hormone following exercise in association with alpha-GPC supplementation.
Alpha-ketoglutarate: A dicarboxylic acid component in energy production and glucose formation via the citric acid cycle as well as oxidation and synthesis of the amino acids L-glutamine, L-glutamate, L-arginine and L-proline.

Alpha-Lipoic acid: An important cellular component, which is required for critical energy production steps inside the body’s cells. It can work in concert with Vitamins C and E and is an important antioxidant.

Amla: Emblica officinalis is a shrub that sometimes grows into a deciduous tree with feathery leaves and green fleshy fruit, indigenous and cultivated in the forests and seacoasts of India and Kashmir. The fruit which is also called Indian gooseberry, has been used as a food and in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. Amla fruit is rich in antioxidants including vitamin C, and is a potent scavenger of free radicals.

Apple extract – Standardized to phloridizin. (fruit – Malus domestica): Contains alpha-D-glucosidase inhibitors that act primarily by decreasing disaccharide hydrolysis thereby reducing the amount of free monosaccharides available for absorption in the intestine. Phloridzin, an alpha-D-glucosidase inhibitor, also acts directly on free glucose absorption in the jejunum, helping to reduce postprandial serum glucose.

L-Arabinose: A natural pentose (5-carbon sugar), which is poorly absorbed, and is an uncompetitive selective inhibitor of intestinal sucrase activity. Contributes to the suppression of glycemic response after ingestion of sucrose. The enzyme sucrase is responsible for the digestion of sucrose (table sugar), which is derived from sugar beets and sugar cane.

L-Arginine: A conditionally essential amino acid necessary for protein synthesis, precursor to nitric oxide, a compound responsible for multiple functions within the body including supporting the immune system and increasing blood flow (vasodilation). Participates in the maintenance of muscle and lean tissue throughout the body. The body can produce this amino acid. However, in the young, production may not meet requirements.

Artichoke leaf extract – Standardized to cynarin. (leaf – Cynara scolymus): An herbal extract containing phenolic acids, lactones and flavonoids that has shown the ability to encourage bile flow in studies. May also exhibit antiemetic, spasmolytic and carminative effects as well as hepatoprotective activity.

Astaxanthin: A carotenoid found in the microaglae Haematococcus pluvialis. Astaxanthin gives pink and red color to salmon, shrimp and lobster. It is a powerful lipid soluble antioxidant and has a unique role in protecting cell membranes because of its chemical structure and its ability to span the double layer cell membrane. Astaxanthin can protect the cell from the inside out. Astaxanthin can also act as a bridge for transporting free radicals to other antioxidants. It protects against oxidative damage to cell membranes and tissues.

Astragalus extract (root – Astragalus membranaceus): The flowering plant genus Astragalus L. contains upwards of 2500 mostly perennial species, is found growing on a global scale, and is distributed primarily around the northern hemisphere and South America. Astragalus is an important herb containing bioactive constituents such as astragalosides, beta-sitosterol and isoflavones. The roots of this herb have been traditionally used to strengthen the immune system. Evidence indicates that the roots possess immunopotentiating properties by activating immune cells such as the B (lymphocyte) cells and stimulating the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes involved in immune enhancement.

Ashwagandha extract – Standardized to withanolides. (root – Withania somnifera): A low-lying perennial shrub found growing in Africa, the Mediterranean and India. Ashwagandha has been widely used in the traditional Indian Ayurvedic medical system for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions and to facilitate overall health and longevity. Some animal studies have indicated positive antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress effects. The extract contains withanolides, chlorogenic acid, seopoletin and beta sitosterol.

Bacopa extract – Standardized to bacosides. (leaf/stem – Bacopa monniera): Bacopa is also known as brahmi. It is a well-known herb traditionally employed in the Ayurvedic system, used for supporting memory and brain function. The extract has potent antioxidant properties and can inhibit lipid peroxidation as well as improve brain and nervous system function. The active constituents of Bacopa monniera, called bacosides, enhance mental retention capacity. It facilitates acquisition, consolidation, and retention of newly acquired behaviors.

Barley malt extract: Is a grain syrup made from sprouting barley seeds, which are then toasted and ground. This means of reducing a complex carbohydrate to a simple sugar results in a subtle sweetener and flavoring agent.

Beet powder (root – Beta vulgaris): The familiar plant Beta vulgaris is known as sugar beets and it is commonly used as food. It is commonly used as a red colorant in various products. Traditionally used as a liver protectant and in response to liver damage.

Betaine: Also known as trimethylglycine. This ingredient plays a role in metabolic processes through donation of a methyl group (one carbon metabolism) as for example the conversion of homocysteine to the amino acid L-methionine.

Beta-carotene: A powerful carotenoid antioxidant that acts through direct quenching or modification of oxidative free radical reactions. It is a precursor of vitamin A. May help in cell function and prevention of some forms of cancer.

Beta-glucan: Soluble fiber known as beta-D-glucan. These compounds are usually referred to as beta-glucans, and they comprise a class of non-digestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in such sources as oats, barley, yeast, bacteria, algae and mushrooms. Oat beta-glucan is a soluble fiber located mainly in cell walls that is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the sugar D-glucose. Studies have shown that a healthy diet that includes beta-glucan can aid in maintaining normal levels of blood cholesterol and glucose.

The exact mechanism of beta-glucan’s possible hypocholesterolemic effect is not clear. It appears to promote increased excretion of bile acids, which could help explain its possible cholesterol moderating activity. Beta-glucan may also promote cholesterol clearance from the plasma via reverse cholesterol transport.

The mechanism of the glucose-regulatory activity of beta-glucan is also not well understood. Beta-glucan may delay gastric emptying time and consequently affect the rate of uptake of D-glucose from the small intestine. The high viscosity of beta-glucan may delay absorption of glucose. Some studies have indicated that beta-glucan may have immunomodulatory activity.

Beta-phenyl-Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (phenibut): Beta-phenyl-Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (phenibut) is a phenyl derivative of the naturally occurring inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Since its discovery in the 1960s, Phenibut has been used for stress, anxiety and insomnia. It is a GABA receptor agonist, demonstrated to have a calming effect. Phenibut may potentiate the actions of selected prescription medications including MAO inhibitors, tranquilizers, narcotics as well as alcohol. It may modulate the function of some epilepsy prescription medications.

Beta-sitosterol: Is a plant-derived sterol, also known as a phytosterol. Plant sterols or phytosterols are common components of plant foods, especially plant oils, seeds and nuts, cereals and legumes. Scientific evidence suggests that plant phytosterols may help to maintain cholesterol levels already within the normal range by inhibiting absorption of dietary cholesterol when consumed as part of a low cholesterol dietary program. Stigmasterol and campesterol are also phytosterols commonly found associated with beta-sitosterol.

Bilberry extract – Standardized to anthocyanosides (fruit – Vaccinium myrtillus): An extract standardized to contain bioflavonoids known as anthocyanosides, which may support eye health, by acting as antioxidants. Evidence suggests they may also improve microvascular blood flow and provide gastroprotective effects.

Black cohosh extract (root – Cimicifuga racemosa): An American wildflower from the buttercup family. Black cohosh extract has been used since the early 1900’s as a “woman’s tonic” and can help reduce menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. It may also act as an anti-inflammatory.

Black currant: The small, shrubby perennial tree, Ribes nigrum, native to central and northern Europe, northern Asia and New Zealand, produces this dark purple to almost black edible berry. Black currants, also called cassis berries, have been consumed as a food and used in traditional herbal medicine for centuries. Black currant berries have very high levels of anthocyanins, compounds that possess high levels of antioxidant capacity, and that are also responsible for the berry’s dark purple-black color. Black currants are also high in polyphenolics and vitamin C.

Biotin: A water-soluble B vitamin that plays a role in carbohydrate utilization and the production of important fatty acids. Biotin assists in metabolism of fatty acids and utilization of B vitamins. It is also important in energy producing steps during metabolism in the cells of the body.

Bitter orange extract – Standardized to synephrine. (pericarp – Citrus aurantium): An extract of the fruit, bitter orange (also known as Seville or sour orange), with the rind. Over the centuries bitter oranges have been highly valued for their food and medicinal properties. Bitter orange contains important neuroactive amines such as synephrine, octopamine and tyramine. Synephrine and octopamine are similar to the catecholamines, noradrenaline and adrenaline found in the sympathetic nerve fibers. The most active constituent of Citrus aurantium L. is synephrine.

Studies show that in human subjects bitter orange extracts, along with other constituents, stimulate lipolysis, and enhance metabolic rate and fat oxidation through increased thermogenesis by stimulating beta-3-adreno receptors thus contributing to weight loss. Synephrine is believed to act on adrenergic receptors and activate thermogenesis.

Boswellia extract – Standardized to boswellic acids. (gum resin – Boswellia serrata): Obtained from the Boswellia serrata tree that grows in the dry hills of India. The active compound found is boswellia are boswellic acids, which may reduce intestinal inflammation.

Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA): [L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-valine]: Essential amino acids that may be limiting in muscle repair and synthesis regardless of age. Also used by the muscles for fuel and tissue repair especially during injury or during strenuous exercise when carbohydrate stores are depleted. Of these three amino acids, L-leucine is most important for prevention of muscle mass loss with aging (sarcopenia), maintenance of exercise quality and intensity and faster recovery from workouts.

Boron: Found in a variety of similar minerals all related to borax, sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7·10H2O). It is a relatively rare element in the earth’s crust, representing only 0.001%. Borax is necessary in small amounts for plant growth, and is considered an essential nutrient. This trace element is thought to support the activity of vitamin D in enhancing calcium and estrogen metabolism.

Burdock extract (root – Arctium lappa): This biennial plant grows in open spaces and along roadsides around the world. Burdock grows from a fleshy taproot and produces large, heart-shaped, hairy leaves and red-violet flower heads surrounded by numerous hooked bracts that form a bur-like cup. Traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal complaints and skin conditions, and is thought to have immunological and anti-inflammatory activity. May help protect the liver against harmful metabolic by-products.

Caffeine: A trimethylxanthine alkaloid derived primarily from coffee and tea. It exhibits stimulatory actions in the central nervous system and muscles, and enhances mental energy and focus. Caffeine promotes alertness and focus by increasing norepinephrine excretion and enhancing neural activity. Many of its effects are due to its competitive antagonism of adenosine receptors.

Calcium: A major mineral for bone health along with calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Calcium is essential for developing and maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It also assists in blood clotting, muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Calcium is a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions.

Calcium caseinate: A high protein, high calcium nutrient derived from milk. Caseinates aggregate in the stomach so that the protein peptides and amino acids pass more slowly through the gut, which enhances a feeling of satiety while prolonging the supply of nitrogen to the muscle tissue.

Carrageenan: Carrageenan is the name given to a family of hydrocolloid polysaccharides obtained from the red seaweeds. This plant based gum serves as both a thickener and an aid in moisture retention.

Carbohydrates: The basic building block of a carbohydrate is a sugar molecule, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet. They provide the body with the fuel it needs for physical activity and for proper organ function. Carbohydrates come in a variety of forms. The most common and abundant are sugars, fibers, and starches.

L-Carnitine: Is essential for the transport of fatty acids into the cellular organelle, mitochondrion, for conversion into energy by oxidation. It has a structure similar to that of amino acids and is formed from L-lysine and L-methionine.

L-Carnosine: L-Carnosine is a dipeptide consisting of of ß-alanine linked at its carboxyl terminus to the amino group of L-histidine (ß-alanyl-L-histidine). It is synthesized by the enzyme carnosine synthetase, and broken down by carnosinase. It is widely distributed in tissues, and is present at particularly high concentrations in skeletal muscle and the olfactory lobe of the brain. Carnosine has a number of important properties, including antioxidant activity, ability to chelate divalent cations such as copper, neutralization of acids (such as lactic acid), and the inhibition of nonenzymic glycosylation of proteins. It is found in long-lived tissues in surprisingly high amounts (up to 20 mM in human muscle) and has been shown to delay aging in cultured cells. When added to cultures of human lung and foreskin fibroblasts, the dipeptide extended cell survival and increased maximal cell division potential while also inducing a more juvenile phenotype in senescent human and rodent cells. This suggests that other properties of the dipeptide are involved. There are suggestions that the concentration of tissue-associated L-carnosine declines with age. L-Carnosine and related dipeptides have been shown to prevent peroxidation of model membrane systems, suggesting that they represent water-soluble counterparts to lipid-soluble antioxidants such as a-tocopherol in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage. Other roles ascribed to this dipeptide include acting as a neurotransmitter in the modulation of enzyme activities.

L-Carnosine significantly reduces the formation of 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OH dG) in cultured cells, thus demonstrating protection of DNA. The presumptive anti-senescent effect of L-carnosine may be related to this inhibition. L-Carnosine also inhibits protein carbonyl formation. A common molecular indication of cellular aging is the accumulation of aberrant proteins, especially polypeptides bearing carbonyl (CO) groups.

Casein (Modified): A well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80% of the proteins in cow’s milk, but only 40% in human milk. Casein is an efficient nutrient, supplying not only essential amino acids, but also some carbohydrates and the inorganic elements calcium and phosphorus.

Cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa): This extract is a traditional medicine from the Amazon rainforest. Historically it is a vine whose bark is brewed into a tea for treating various inflammatory disorders. Cat’s claw balances immune function and is an excellent adaptogen.

Chamomile (flower – Matricaria chamomilla): German chamomile is a sweet-scented, smooth, branched annual growing to 2 1/2 ft. in height. It is native to Europe and Western Asia, and has become widely naturalized in the U.S. Chamomiles have been used for centuries in teas as a mild, relaxing sleep aid, treatment for fevers, colds, stomach ailments, and as an anti-inflammatory, to name only a few therapeutic uses.

Chaste tree extract – Standardized to agnusides. (berry – Vitex agnus-castus): Indigenous to the Mediterranean, chaste tree now grows throughout the world in subtropical climates. Chaste tree berry extract helps normalize hormones levels, which eases the effects of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and sweating.

Chitosan: Is derived from chitin, a polysaccharide found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans. Chitosan is produced by grinding shells from shellfish such as shrimp, lobster and crabs into a very fine powder. This powder is then deacetylated, or stripped of specific chemical groups that allow the compound to have polar binding sites and high absorbability. Chitosan is known for its ability to bind fats, oils and bile acids and increase excretion of these materials.

Cholecalciferol:See Vitamin D)

Choline: Chemically is trimethylethanolamine. Aids in the formation of a number of important substances in the body essential for nerve function and protection, muscle control, memory, and many other functions. Utilized for producing important constituents (phospholipids) involved in brain and heart functions and energy utilization. A building block for acetylcholine, a key brain chemical involved in memory, mental processes and nerve as well as muscle functions. Serves as a methyl donor in one carbon metabolism.

Chokeberry (Aronia): Two to three species of Aronia, deciduous shrubs commonly found in woodlands and swamps, are native to eastern Europe and eastern North America. Chokeberries, the fruit produced by these shrubs, range in color from red to purple to black, have an astringent flavor and are high in anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and vitamin C.

Chromium: An essential trace element involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. It primarily increases the efficiency of insulin. Supplemental chromium administered to individuals with impaired glucose tolerance leads to improved blood glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. It appears to improve lean muscle mass in humans. Response to chromium is dependent upon the form and the amount of supplemental chromium. Human studies suggest that certain forms of chromium decrease insulin levels and improve glucose disposal in obese populations. In one study, a high chromium supplementation with exercise decreased total cholesterol in human volunteers.

Citrus flavonoids: Flavonoids comprise a large group of low molecular weight polyphenolic phytochemicals found in plants. They have been categorized into six families based on their chemical structures. These families are chalcones, flavones, flavonols, flavanones, anthocyanins and isoflavonoids. Flavonoids from citrus fruits include rutin, hesperidin, quercetin, and naringin. These flavonoid compounds have shown antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vitamin C sparing action, beneficial effects on blood flow and anti-allergenic interactions with immune cells.

L-Citrulline: An amino acid that is not normally present in protein. L-Citrulline is created in the body as an intermediate in the conversion of the amino acid L-ornithine to L-arginine in a metabolic pathway called the urea cycle. L-Citrulline was first isolated from watermelon. The term citrulline was coined from citrullus, the Latin name of the watermelon.

Cocoa: Cocoa is a fine-textured chocolate powder that is made from ground roasted cocoa beans with most of the fat removed.

Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10): A quinone coenzyme with an isoprenoid tail. Also known as ubiquinone. Found virtually in all body cell membranes and energy compartments. The conversion of energy from carbohydrates and fats to ATP, the form of energy used by cells in the body, requires the presence of coenzyme Q. By functioning as an antioxidant, may protect tissue components by neutralizing free radicals and reactive oxygen species produced during the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates.

Coleus extract – Standardized to forskohlin. (root – Coleus forskohlii): The active ingredient found in coleus extract is forskohlin. Forskohlin may help increase lean body mass and help reduce body fat during periods of exercise. This ingredient also helps support lipolysis. Lipolysis is breakdown of fats to be used as fuel in the body. Forskohlin stimulates and activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase resulting in production of cyclic AMP.

Copper: Copper is an essential mineral that is an integral part of numerous enzyme systems involved in health. Plays a role in iron metabolism, melanin synthesis, and central nervous system function, the synthesis and cross-linking of elastin and collagen, bone formation, and skeletal mineralization.

Cranberry juice powder (fruit – Vaccinium macrocarpon): Traditionally used to ease effects of and prevent urinary tract infections. Contains proanthocyanidins that interfere with the bacterial adherence to the urinary tract that causes urinary tract infections. Other properties included acting as a mild diuretic and urinary deodorizer.

Creatine: A nitrogenous organic acid synthesized from the amino acids glycine, L-arginine, and L-methionine that is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates mainly in the form of phosphocreatine and which supplies energy for muscle contraction. Plays a very important part in cell energy production and increases both total and fat-free body mass.

Crataegus oxyacantha (leaf and fruit): Also known as Hawthorn, Crataegus is a thorny shrub or small tree which is a member of the Rosaceae family, and is native to temperate areas of North America, Europe and Asia. The shrub produces small red berries and has been used in traditional herbal and Chinese medicine. The primary groups of bioactive constituents of this shrub are flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins.

Cyanocobalamin:See Vitamin B-12)

DHA: Docosahexaenoic acid, as well as EPA and other long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, is an important structural component of cell membranes. DHA is selectively incorporated into retinal cell membranes in very high concentrations, and scientific data indicates it is required for normal development and function of the retina. Phospholipids of the brain’s gray matter also contain high proportions of DHA indicating its importance to central nervous system function. Animal studies have shown that depletion of DHA in the brain can result in learning deficits. Studies have also indicated that some fatty acids including omega-3s, can modulate the expression of genes involved with fatty acid metabolism and inflammation.

Digestive Enzymes: Include pancreatic enzymes, plant-derived enzymes, and fungal-derived enzymes, which comprise three classes of enzymes: proteolytic enzymes needed to digest protein, lipases needed to digest fat, and amylases needed to digest carbohydrates. Digestive enzymes improve absorption of food and facilitate digestive processes. Examples of plant based digestive enzymes include:

Papain:An enzyme extracted from the unripe fruit of the papaya ( Carica papaya) that catalyzes the lysis of proteins, and is used as a digestive aid.

Bromelain:Found most commonly in the stem of the pineapple plant ( Ananas comosus). It is a mixture of sulfur-containing proteolytic enzymes or proteases. It also contains several other substances in smaller quantities, including perioxidase, acid phosphatase, protease inhibitors, and calcium.

d-Limonene: A naturally occurring terpene found in orange peel and citrus fruits. It is a major aroma component of essential oils obtained from orange, grape fruit, lemon, dried fruits of black pepper, and white and black pepper. It is considered to possess relaxation effects based on experimental animal studies. It inhibits the production of cholesterol and improves immune response in experimental animals. d-Limonene has been shown in clinical studies to possess antineoplastic activity.

Dong quai extract (root – Angelica polymorpha): An aromatic, perennial flowering plant found growing at high altitudes in the mountains of Japan, Korea and China. It has been used in Asia for thousands of years to help with a woman’s overall health and feeling of well-being. Shown to support urinary tract health, as well as easing menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes.

Dry bean extract – Standardized to phaseolamin. (seed – Phaseolus vulgaris): A source of the pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitor, alpha AI found in many types of beans such as the Great White Northern Kidney Bean. Alpha amylase is an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of starch. This product is therefore useful in slowing the metabolism of starch to glucose and thus helps moderate blood sugar levels in the normal range.

Echinacea extract – Standardized to phenols. (aerial – Echinacea purpurea): a member of the sunflower family (Compositae or Asteraceae). Nine species are found exclusively in the U.S. and Canada. The genus name is derived from the Greek echinos (hedgehog or sea urchin), referring to the prickly scales of the dried seed head. Echinaecea has a long history of medicinal use, both in the United States and Europe. Much of the research has focused on the use of Echinacea as a non-specific stimulant to the immune defense system. Active constituents include high molecular weight polysaccharides such as hetroxylan and arabinoglactan as well as the lower molecular weight compounds chicoric acid and echinacosides.

Elderberry: This berry is the small blue-black berry of a deciduous tree, Sambucus nigra L., native to Europe, Northern Africa and Western and Central Asia. Elderberry has a long history of traditional use among Native Americans and in traditional European medicine, with antioxidant, antiviral and anti-inflammatory actions among the reported historical and traditional benefits. Elderberries are rich in flavonoids, vitamins C, B1, B2 and B6, lectins and anthocyanins, and the berries are also incorporated into food and condiments for coloring and flavor.

Eleuthero extract – Standardized to eleutherosides. (root – Eleutherococcus senticosus):Also known as Siberian ginseng. A plant indigenous to China, Japan, Korea, and Siberia. One of the first plants known as adaptogens to be studied by the Russian scientist Dr. I. I. Brekhman for its restorative properties. ( See Adaptogens)

Enzyme hydrolyzed whey proteins: Whey protein is a pure, natural, high quality protein from cow’s milk. It is a rich source of the essential amino acids needed on a daily basis by the body. Whey protein is an excellent protein choice for individuals of all ages. It provides a number of benefits in areas including sports nutrition, weight management, immune support, bone health, and general wellness. Whey protein provides an excellent source of glutamine and amino acids that are essential for muscle building, enhancing endurance and supporting the immune system. Enzyme hydrolyzed whey proteins have had their molecular chains partially disassembled by enzyme actions as a part of the manufacturing process prior to use as an ingredient. This added manufacturing step greatly facilitates digestion of the whey proteins after consumption, speeding up their availability to the body’s metabolic processes.

EpiCor®EpiCor is a complex, natural fermentation product comprised of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and antioxidants. EpiCor supports immune health by promoting efficient activity of humoral responses and by suppressing inappropriate adaptive responses, thereby helping balance the immune system and maintain wellness. Research demonstrates that EpiCor increases levels of secretory IgA which supports the mucosal barrier, and activates the immune components, natural killer cells and B cells. EpiCor has also demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Fiber: Basically the portions of fruits, vegetables, whole grains that the human digestive system cannot break down so they pass through the system. Chemically, fibers are non-digestible carbohydrate and carbohydrate-related substances. Fiber by itself provides no nutrients, but its passage through the digestive tract is greatly beneficial because it helps push along other waste and helps maintain the integrity of the intestinal lining. Fiber aids regularity, promotes weight management, helps slow glucose absorption from the small intestine, inhibits absorption of cholesterol and bile acid from the small intestine, and is believed to play a role in lowering risk of heart disease.

Fiber blend:

Gums (gum arabic & guar gum) – mostly soluble fiber
Celluloses (cellulose powder & oat bran) – mostly insoluble fiber
Fruit pectins (apple & citrus pectin) – mostly soluble fiber
Psyllium seed – mostly soluble fiber

Figs (fruit – Ficus carica): Any of several trees or shrubs of the genus Ficus native to the Mediterranean region and widely cultivated around the world for its edible fruit.

Flaxseed (seed – Linum usitatissimum): The seed of flax, the source of linseed oil and emollient medicinal preparations. Though the most universal function of flax seed is to produce linseed oil (commonly used in paints, varnishes, linoleums and inks), this tiny seed contains several essential nutrients including calcium, iron, niacin, phosphorus and vitamin E. It’s also a rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid. It has a mild nutty flavor and is often used simply sprinkled over hot dishes such as cooked cereal or stir-fries.

Folic acid: Is a B complex vitamin, which is necessary to optimize physiological function and health. Folic acid is important in the utilization of proteins (amino acids). It is also involved in one carbon metabolism including the methylation of homocysteine to L-methionine and DNA synthesis. Folic acid also plays an important role in pregnancy.

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS): Refer to short-chain oligosaccharides comprised of D-fructose and D-glucose, containing from three to five monosaccharide units. FOS are resistant to digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. They act to stimulate the growth of Bifidobacterium species in the large intestine and thereby facilitate digestion and intestinal function. FOS are marketed in the United States in combination with probiotic bacteria and in some functional food products. They are also referred to as prebiotics.

Fructose: A simple sugar found in honey and in the fruit and other parts of plants. It is much sweeter than sucrose (cane sugar). Chemically it is a monosaccharide (see carbohydrate) with the empirical formula C6H12O6. It has the same formula as glucose but differs from it in structure (see isomer). Fructose is often recommended for, and consumed by, people with diabetes mellitus or hypoglycemia because it has a very low Glycemic Index (GI 32) relative to sucrose. The low GI is due to the unique and lengthy metabolic pathway of fructose, which involves phosphorylation and a multi-step enzymatic process in the liver.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid): A neurotransmitter within the central nervous system that supports mental energy and focus.

Gamma Oryzanol: A natural component of rice bran, corn, and barley oils. It is a naturally occurring mixture of plant chemicals called sterols and ferulic acid esters. Some evidence suggests that gamma oryzanol increases testosterone levels, stimulates the release of endorphins (pain-relieving substances made in the body), and promotes the growth of lean muscle tissue.

Garcinia extract – Standardized to hydroxycitric acid. (fruit – Garcinia cambogia): Its active ingredient, (-)-hydroxycitrate (HCA), is an inhibitor of ATP-citrate-lyase, a cytosolic (extramitochondrial) enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloactetate and acetyl-CoA. HCA is believed to reduce the pool of acetyl CoA, limiting the bioavailability of 2-carbon groups required for the synthesis of lipids and cholesterol. In view of this, HCA might promote weight maintenance by inhibiting or limiting the capacity for de novo lipogenesis. Administration of HCA reduces energy intake in humans in short-term studies. Some human studies have claimed that extracts containing HCA increase fat oxidation and decrease appetite in short-term studies. Other studies have indicated that the ingestion of a Garcinia cambogia, HCA containing extract and a form of chromium helps weight management in human subjects.

Garlic powder, odorless (bulb – Allium sativum): Garlic has been used as a medicine and health-promoter for 5,000 years. It was widely used in ancient Assyria, Egypt, India, Greece and China. The chemistry of garlic is extremely complex, but research indicates that it is the unusual organosulfur compounds relatively unique to garlic that promote a broad range of lipid lowering, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects.

GenoPause™ herbal blend: Is a unique, clinically studied blend of four non-estrogenic herbal extracts, Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera and Commiphora mukul.

  • Tinospora cordifolia, also called Guduchi, is a common deciduous climbing perennial shrub native to tropical India, Burma and Ceylon. Extracts of the stem of this herb yield diterpenoids and glycosides. Guduchi has long been used in Ayurvedic medicine and is thought to exert anti-tumor, analgesic, antipyretic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and adaptogenic effects.
  • Asparagus racemosus, also known as Shatavari, is a creeping plant common throughout tropical and subtropical India, Ceylon, Sri Lanka, parts of Australia, tropical Africa, and up to 4,000 feet altitude in the Himalayas. An extract of the root yields saponins and asparagosides. It has had wide use in Ayurvedic medicine as an adaptogen and as a female tonic for overall health and vitality. It is reported to have antitumor, antimutagenic, antioxidant and antibacterial effects.
  • Withania somnifera, also called Ashwaganda, is a tall evergreen shrub that grows prolifically in drier parts of India, Nepal, Pakistan, Ceylon, Sri Lanka, Iraq and Bangladesh, and is commercially cultivated in the Madhya Pradesh province of India. Root and leaf extracts are reported to have antibacterial, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and antioxidant effects. It is also valued as an adaptogen. Ashwaganda is a source of alkaloids, withanolides, glycosides and a falconoid.
  • Commiphora mukul, also called Guggul, is a flowering shrub or small tree native to northern India, but is also found from northern Africa to central Asia. An extract known as gugulipid, from the resin of the tree, contains diterpenoids and sesamin among other compounds and has been used for cardiovascular health in Ayurvedic medicine in India for approximately 3,000 years. Guggul has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory effects as well as hypolipidemic, antioxidant and some anti-arthritic effects.

Ginkgo biloba extract – Standardized to gingo flavoneglycosides and terpene lactones. (leaf – Ginkgo biloba): The ginkgo tree is the world’s oldest living species of tree. Individual trees can grow for as long as 1,000 years in the southern and eastern United States, southern France, China and Korea. The leaf is used for extracts standardized to 25% ginkgo flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones. Ginkgo leaf extract has been used in Chinese Traditional Medicine for 5,000 years. Ginkgo extract has been shown to have a whole host of benefits, but perhaps the two most notable are its antioxidant activity and its ability to increased blood flow to the brain. Acute administration of extracts improved performance in tests of attention and memory. Some studies have suggested positive effects of the extract, EGb 761, on the subjective emotional well-being of healthy elderly persons.

Glucosamine: Glucosamine is a form of amino sugar that plays a role in cartilage formation and repair. It is an essential building block used as an intermediate substrate (proteoglycans) in the production of cartilage. In addition to serving as a building block for the synthesis of proteoglycans, the presence of glucosamine acts as a stimulus to the cells that produce proteoglycans.

Glycine: One of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. Glycine is structurally the simplest of the a-amino acids, having merely a hydrogen atom for a side chain, and is thus very unreactive when incorporated into proteins. Glycine participates in several important reactions, including the biosynthesis of heme, an important constituent of hemoglobin, and the biosynthesis of L-serine (another amino acid), purines (constituents of genetic material), and glutathione (a coenzyme and antioxidant).

Glycerin (Glycerol): A clear, sweet syrupy liquid extracted from animal fats and vegetable oils. It is used in small amounts in some cake, bar, pastry, and icing mixtures to keep these products moist and to extend their shelf life.

Ginger – Standardized to gingerols. (root – Zingiber officinale): A large tuberous perennial plant native to southern Asia, now cultivated extensively in almost all tropical and subtropical countries, especially China, India, Nigeria, Australia, Jamaica, and Haiti. Ginger has been used as a medicine since ancient times and is official in the national pharmacopoeias of Austria, China, Egypt, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, and Switzerland. Modern human studies have investigated ginger as an anti-emetic, anti-nausea treatment, a prophylactic against motion sickness and/or seasickness and for its effect on human platelet function. Studies also show it supports digestion and acid production necessary for calcium absorption.

L-Glutamine: The most abundant amino acid in plasma. It helps enhance immune function, is important in the preservation of muscle mass, and is a neuroactive precursor needed for optimal mental functioning. It may also help reduce cravings for sweets. It is an important fuel source for muscle and rapidly dividing cells such as the cells of the immune and gastrointestinal systems. L-glutamine is important in the synthesis of glutathione, and the amino acids, L-citrulline and L-arginine.

Glucomannan (tuber – Amorphophallus konjac): The Western name for vegetable fibers derived from an Asiatic plant family known as Konjac. Glucomannan soluble non-absorbable dietary fiber swells in the stomach to help create a feeling of fullness. When we feel full, appetite typically decreases. Flour made from the Konjac root and the root itself is used in a variety of foods in Asia. Chemically it is a polysaccharide composed of partially acetylated D-glucose and D-mannose sugars.

Golden root – Standardized to glycosides. (root – Rhodiola rosea): Rhodiola is a perennial plant with a thick rhizome, fragrant when cut, that grows primarily in dry sandy ground at high altitudes in arctic areas of mountainous regions in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. For centuries, rhodiola has been used in the traditional medicine of Russia, Scandinavia, and other countries. Rhodiola has been extensively studied as an adaptogen with various health-promoting effects, including increasing a body’s resistance to stress, enhancing immunity, facilitating oxygen transport, increasing capacity for exertion and for serving as an antioxidant. (See Adaptogens)

Goldenseal – Standardized to total alkaloids. (root – Hydrastis Canadensis): One of the most widely sold American medicinal plants in North American herb markets. Widely thought to have the potential for supporting the body’s respiratory defense systems in conjunction with common cold, upper respiratory tract infections, allergic rhinitis and nasal congestion. The active constituents are the alkaloids berberine, hydrastine, canadine and canadaline.

Gotu kola – Standardized to triterpenoids. (leaf/stem/flower – Centella asiatica): A slender, creeping plant that grows commonly in swampy areas of India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, South Africa and the tropics. Studies indicate that it exhibits properties of immune system support, anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidant activity as well as providing support for production of collagen and cartilage. Gotu kola is traditionally employed as a brain tonic for promoting memory, cognitive function, and mental well-being. Studies have demonstrated that the extract is helpful in relieving anxiety, promoting relaxation and a positive mood and exhibiting positive results on learning and memory.

Graminex? flower pollen extract – Standardized to water and lipid portions. (pollen – Secale cereale, Zea mays, Phleum pratence): An extract prepared from the pollen of rye grass, maize and timothy grass. It comprises a water-soluble and a lipid-soluble fraction. The latter fraction contains phytosterols. In vitro studies suggest that pollen extracts may have anti-androgenic effects, may inhibit 5α-reductase activity, relax urethral smooth muscle tone and increase bladder muscle contraction, act on the alpha-adrenergic receptors and relax the internal and external sphincter muscles, and inhibit the production of cytokines. Clinical studies suggest that the extracts improve urinary health.

Grape extract – Standardized to phenols (seed/skin – Vitis vinifera) and Grape seed extract: The extract contains polyphenols, which consist of (+)-catechin monomers, procyanidin oligomers and polymers, and is particularly rich in proanthocyanidins. These are short chains of catechins or flavanols, which exert profound effects of gene expression and are powerful antioxidants. The proanthocyanidins and associated flavanols are shown to induce endothelium dependent vasodilation and displays heart protective activity in experimental animals. There are numerous research reports documenting benefits in various states of inflammation.

Guarana extract – Standardized to caffeine. (seed – Paullinia cupana): The extract is standardized for caffeine. Paullinia cupana is a berry, which grows in Venezuela and Brazil. Guarana is used in South America to prepare an energy-stimulating beverage similar to coffee or tea. Caffeine is the primary ingredient in guarana responsible for energy stimulation. Caffeine is a trimethylxanthine alkaloid derived primarily from coffee, tea and kola nut.
Caffeine modulates adenosine receptors and increases the turnover of several monoamine neurotransmitters in body cells, including serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline, vital for brain function. In addition, this purine derivative also augments CNS activity, lipolysis and respiration. Caffeine stimulates thermogenesis and increases energy expenditure dose dependently in human subjects. Single-dose oral administration of caffeine increases the resting metabolic rate of both lean and post-obese human volunteers, and improves diet-induced thermogenesis observed in the post-obese subjects. Caffeine at commonly consumed doses can have a significant influence on energy balance and may promote thermogenesis. Studies show that caffeine stimulates catecholamine release in vivo. Catecholamines activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which trigger increased rate of fat mobilization from body stores and hydrolysis to fatty acids (lipolysis), and enhanced resting metabolic rate (thermogenesis). Caffeine inhibits phosphodiesterase activity in vitro, an action with implications for raising the levels of cyclic AMP in body cells.

Guar gum:A soluble fiber extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, where it acts as a food and water store. Guar gum is a natural high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of galactan and mannan units. Polysaccharides are complex sugar molecules with nine or more simple sugars (monosaccharides) linked together. Several studies have found significant decreases in cholesterol levels after administration of guar gum in humans. These decreases are thought to be a function of the high soluble fiber content of guar. It is used as a binding, thickening, suspending and stabilizing agent in foods, beverages, lotions and creams.

Gymnema extract – Standardized to gymnemic acids. (leaf – Gymnema sylvestre):A woody climbing plant that grows in the tropical forests of central and southern India. An extract of this plant appears to aid in promoting weight management by its ability to reduce the cravings for sweets and to control blood sugar levels. A particular study showed that a peptide isolated from Gymnema sylvestre, gurmarin, was able to block the sweet taste of glucose and sucrose in animal models. Gurmarin temporarily binds to the sweet and bitter taste receptors on the tongue, thereby blocking the taste sensation and reducing sweet cravings. Some studies reported that the ingestion of an extract of Gymnema sylvestre resulted a significant lowering of cholesterol in hypertensive rats fed a high sucrose diet. Gymnema is a source of gymnemic acid, a mixture of triterpene glycosides known to inhibit the intestinal absorption of glucose. Gymnemic acid also has an inhibitory effect on the intestinal absorption of oleic acid.

Hawthorn extract – Standardized to vitexin-rhamnoside (leaf/flower – Crataegus laevigata): A common, thorny shrub that grows on hillsides and in sunny wooded areas of North America, Europe, western Asia, and North Africa. The leaves, flowers and berries of hawthorn contain bioflavonoids such as oligomeric procyanidins, vitexin, quercetin and hyperoside that are thought to be responsible for the herbs positive health benefits. Hawthorn is known for providing numerous cardiac benefits including improved coronary blood flow, blood flow in the extremities and supporting cardiac muscle. It may also have a positive effect in helping maintain blood pressure already in the normal range.

Hibiscus extract (flower – Hibiscus sabdariffa): An extract of the hibiscus flower that contains inhibitors of alpha-amylase, an enzyme that is responsible for the breakdown of starch. This extract may also help produce a reduction in blood pressure.

High fructose corn syrup: A portion of the glucose in ordinary corn syrup is converted to fructose through the incubation with the enzyme glucose isomerase. This process, invented by Japanese researchers in the 1970s, increases the fructose content of corn syrup to 42%. Because fructose is a much sweeter monosaccharide than glucose, the sweetness of the syrup increases relative to corn syrup.

Honey: Honey is a sweet, viscid fluid produced by honeybees from the nectar of flowers. The nectar is taken from the flower by the worker bee and is carried in the honey sac back to the hive. It is transformed into honey by enzymes produced in the honey sac, which convert the natural sucrose (a complex sugar) in the nectar into fructose and glucose (simple sugars). From earliest times until cane sugar became commercially important, honey was a major sweetening agent. Honey is easily absorbed and utilized by the body. It contains about 70% to 80% sugar; the rest is water, minerals and traces of protein, acids, and other substances.

Hops (flower – Humulus lupulus): A perennial herbaceous vine native to Europe and western Asia that is now cultivated in North and South America, Africa, Asia and Australia. Although portions of this plant have been used in making beverages for centuries, hops also has a long history of folk medicine applications such as calming and sleep promoting activity. Various flavonoids are believed to be responsible for the beneficial effects.

ß-Hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB): A metabolite of the essential amino acid L-leucine (one of the essential branched-chain amino acids). Small amounts of HMB are found in a variety of plant and animal sources, which include alfalfa and catfish. As with other amino acid-related substances, HMB appears to play a role in the synthesis of protein—including the protein that builds new muscle tissue.

It is hypothesized that HMB supplements may signal the body to slow down destruction of muscle tissue. Although the evidence is limited, HMB may enhance strength and muscle mass in response to weight training and may help prevent muscle damage during prolonged exercise.

5-Hydroxytryptophan: An intermediate formed from the essential aromatic amino acid, L-tryptophan. The production of 5-hydroxytryptophan is the first step in the synthesis of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), which functions primarily as a neurotransmitter, and melatonin, the principal hormone secreted by the pineal gland. These substances are believed to have effects on mood and performance. 5-Hydroxytryptophan gives rise to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the tissues by a decarboxylase enzyme.

ID-alGID-alG is an extract of brown seaweed harvested off the coast of Brittany which contains naturally concentrated minerals and trace elements. The extract is also rich in marine polyphenols, and antioxidants. Studies show ID-alG inhibits the digestive enzymes, lipase and amylase. By decreasing the body’s fat and carbohydrate assimilation, ID-alG may help control caloric intake and reduce fat storage.

Inosine: A nucleoside involved in the formation of purines and a compound with possible roles in energy metabolism. Inosine supports regeneration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle activity is fueled in part by ATP. When the body’s reserve of ATP is depleted, it loses energy and strength. Inosine appears to work by making ATP last longer. Inosine provides a safe and effective way to enable the body to utilize oxygen more efficiently. The result is greater strength, energy and stamina and simultaneous promotion of lean body weight.

Inulin: Inulin is a natural storage carbohydrate found in numerous edible plant species including chicory, artichoke, leek, onion, asparagus, wheat, barley, rye, garlic, and bananas. It has a mildly sweet taste and filling in a manner similar to starches but is not absorbed by the body so it does not have an effect on blood sugar levels. It resists digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and is fermented by microflora, primarily lactic acid bacteria, in the large intestine. For that reason, it provides the same positive effects of soluble fiber in the diet.

Iodine: A trace element associated primarily with the thyroid gland where it participates in the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are involved in regulating, growth, development, and metabolism.

Iron: A mineral that plays an important role in immune function, cognitive development, temperature regulation and energy metabolism; a component of various proteins which are involved in the transport and metabolism of oxygen; plays a role in alcohol metabolism, drug detoxification and carcinogen excretion; involved in the breakdown of toxic oxygen species; functions as a cofactor for some enzymes including those involved in the synthesis of collagen and various neurotransmitters including dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and serotonin.

Kola nut extract – Standardized to caffeine. (fruit – Cola acuminata): Kola (Cola) is cultivated in Western Africa, West Indies and Brazil. Caffeine is the most notable active ingredient in kola nut extract. (See Caffeine for more information.)

Lemon Balm Extract (Melissa officinalis): Lemon Balm is a member of the mint family, is native to Southern Europe and middle Asia, particularly in mountainous areas of Turkey. Historically lemon balm was used for insomnia, stress, anxiety and for its antiviral and relaxation effects. Active compounds include monoterpenoid aldehydes, flavonoids, polyphenols and monoterpene glycosides.

LeptiCore®: LeptiCore is a nutraceutical blend of plant polysaccharides, esterified fatty acids, pomegranate extract, beta-carotene and blue-green algae. This proprietary blend helps protect against oxidative stress, helps support healthy cardiovascular function and promotes healthy weight management and metabolic wellness. (LeptiCore® is a trademark of Gateway Health Alliance Inc., and is protected under US Patent 6,899,892 and patents pending.)

Leuzea extract – Standardized to piperidine. (root – Rhaponticum carthamoides): Rhaponticum carthamoides is an herbaceous perennial growing between 4,500 -6,000 feet above sea level. The plant can be found growing wild as well as cultivated in Southern Siberia, Kazakhstan, and Russia and Eastern Europe.Rhaponticum root contains antioxidant catechins, flavonols, flavonoids and chlorogenic acid. Rhaponticum is an adaptogenic plant that may exert a beneficial effect on memory and learning, as well as increase working capacity of tired skeletal muscles.

α-Lipoic acid:  An important cellular component that is required for critical energy production steps taking place inside cells. The metabolic antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (LA), is a disulfide compound found naturally in plants and animals. It is the only antioxidant that is water and fat-soluble. It is easily transported across cell membranes. The disulfide form of LA is reduced in mitochondria by specific dehydrogenases and its supplementation thus targets an antioxidant to the mitochondria, the major site of free radical production. Supplementation with LA may also boost mitochondrial function because it is a co-factor for pyruvate and a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and as such, may be useful in increasing overall mitochondrial metabolism. LA crosses the blood–brain barrier in animals and is readily incorporated into the cells. It is reduced to a potent antioxidant, dihydrolipoic acid, which can reduce oxidized vitamin C and glutathione, which may in turn recycle vitamin E. As a form of lipoyllysine, LA is found in vegetables (spinach, broccoli and tomatoes) and in animal tissues (kidney, heart and liver). LA can decrease oxidative damage in the brains of older rats and partly restore age-related declines in nervous functions. LA plays a fundamental role in mitochondrial metabolism. It is also a substrate for the NADPH dependent enzyme, glutathione reductase. The reduced form of LA reacts with oxidants such as superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen. Animal studies show that the administration of lipoic acid is beneficial for nerve function, and insulin response, as well as eye and heart health.

Licorice extract – Standardized to glycyrrhizic acid. (root – Glycyrrhiza glabra): An herbal extract containing numerous active constituents attributed with anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, anti-hepatotoxic, expectorant, anti-tussive and anti-allergic activities. The anti-allergic activity is ascribed mainly to the action of the aglycone, beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a triterpene, has demonstrated anti-viral activity by inhibiting the growth and cytopathology of unrelated DNA and RNA viruses in vitro. GA has also shown anti-inflammatory activity similar to hydrocortisone and has reduced inflammatory levels of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), indicative of liver damage, and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), representative of cellular damage.

Lutein and zeaxanthin: Carotenoids found in green vegetables such as spinach, kale and broccoli. In the eye, lutein is found within the macula of the retina. The body does not make lutein or zeaxanthin and they must be obtained by food sources or through supplementation. Lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with normal functioning of the retina, which is responsible for sharp and detailed vision. These carotenoids work in the eye by filtering out damaging ultraviolet blue light and working as antioxidants against free radicals in the eye.

Lycopene: Lycopene is a red carotenoid pigment and is one of the most potent antioxidants among dietary carotenoids. Supplementation of lycopene helps maintain heart, prostate, immune and cellular health. Studies indicate that it also diminishes the level of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Tomatoes and tomato products are the richest dietary sources of lycopene. Other sources include pink grapefruit, watermelon, rosehip, pink guava, papaya and apricots.

L-Lysine: An essential amino acid necessary for producing carnitine, an antioxidant, necessary for transporting long chain fatty acids into the mitochondrion for energy production and utilization. L-Lysine is necessary for protein and collagen synthesis.

Maca (Lepidium meyenii or Lepidium peruvianum): Is a cruciferous root vegetable native to the high Andes of Peru and Bolivia, belonging to the same family as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, radish and turnip. It is the only edible plant with the ability to grow at altitudes of 9,000 to 14,500 feet and survive the harsh weather conditions, rocky soil and thin air. Maca has been cultivated for over a thousand years and has historically been used by indigenous Andean inhabitants as an adaptogen to improve stamina, endurance and energy, alleviate the effects of stress, balance hormones, improve mood, reduce menopausal and premenstrual symptoms and increase virility. Maca is a source of approximately 60 phytonutrients including alkaloids, tannins, saponins and glucosinolates.

Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa): Maitake mushroom is an edible mushroom containing beta-glucans and glycosides which possess immune enhancing effects including activating immunocompetent cells and enhancing both innate and adaptive immune responses in experimental animals. Evidence indicates immunomodulatory effects in humans. Maitake is used as a food in Japan.

Manganese: An essential trace mineral found in mostly in whole grains, green leafy vegetables, dried fruits and nuts. There are several manganese depended enzymes, one of which is necessary for glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Glycosaminoglycans are components that surround collagen, elastic fibers and cells and are important for connective tissue synthesis such as collagen. Manganese is also necessary for the activation of enzymes associated with fat, protein, carbohydrate and urea metabolism.

Magnesium: An essential mineral vital in more than 300 enzyme-catalyzed reactions including ATP, DNA and RNA synthesis and metabolism. It is important for bone development, an important contributor in nerve and heart function and involved in the release of insulin from the pancreas and the action of insulin on cells. It is vital for cardiovascular and muscle function, helps regulate insulin and blood sugar, and is essential for energy production and cell division.

Magnolia extract – Standardized to honokiol. (bark – Magnolia officinalis): A widely used herb. One of the active constituents of this extract, honokiol, is a lignan (plant phenol) derivative that has potent antioxidant activity. It has also been found to exhibit a relaxation and anxiolytic, effect and to increase acetylcholine in the hippocampus of experimental animals.

Maltodextrin: Maltodextrin is a moderately sweet polysaccharide produced from cornstarch and used as a food additive. Being absorbed as rapidly as glucose, it is easily digestible and is a good source of rapid energy.

Maqui berry: This berry is the small purple-black fruit of a small evergreen tree, Aristotelia chilensis, native to the temperate rainforests of Chile and adjacent regions of southern Argentina. Commonly known as Chilean Wineberry or Maqui, the berry has been traditionally used as a food and in the native herbal medicine of the Mapuche Indians of Chile. The berries are a source of polyphenols, principally anthocyanins.

MariPlex-PG: A proprietary blend consisting of:
Chondroitin sulfate – a glycosaminoglycan found primarily in the bones, cartilage and connective tissue that may help support the re-forming of cartilage; Shark cartilage concentrate – obtained from the skeletal structure of sharks, contains glycosaminoglycans;
N-acetylglucosamine – a derivative of the amino sugar glucosamine found as structural component of cell walls.

Medium chain triglycerides: Edible C8 – C12 fatty acids esterfied with glycerol which are rapidly absorbed and rapidly oxidized. They provide rapid energy replenishment.

Melatonin: A derivative of L-tryptophan naturally produced in the brain that plays a central role in sleep and regulates the body’s circadian rhythms. A number of studies report that supplementation with low doses of melatonin may exert immediate sleep-inducing effects. It also functions as an antioxidant and may play a role in immune function.

Metabolically balanced protein blend: A special protein blend consisting of whey protein concentrate, calcium caseinate, milk protein concentrate and branched-chain amino acids (L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-valine). It is an important energy source, crucial in functions such as formation of muscles, bones, skin and organs, blood clotting, maintenance of fluid balance, regulation of pH balance in the blood, hormone and enzyme production, immune function, formation of visual pigments and cell repair.

Milk thistle extract – Standardized to silymarin. (fruit – Silybum marianum): A plant native to the Mediterranean which grows wild throughout Europe, North America and Australia. Silymarin, a potent hepatoprotectant and antioxidant is a primary component of the plant extract. Following an oral administration of silymarin, the three pharmacologically active flavones of silymarin, namely, silybin, silydianin, and silychristin, can be detected in the plasma. Oral administration of silymarin has been reported to increase superoxide dismutase activity in the erythrocytes and lymphocytes of certain human subjects. The hepatoprotective properties of silymarin are considered to be partly due to its inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

Moomiyo – Standardized to polyphenols: A humic adaptogen that is a complex mixture of minerals, amino acids, polyphenolic resins, fatty acids, vitamins and plant sterols. It supports epithelial cell health and helps maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Selected studies have demonstrated adaptogenic, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, anxiolytic, nootropic and antihistaminic properties.

MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane): The oxidized form of dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO), MSM is an organic sulfur-containing compound that occurs naturally in a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains and animals including humans. It provides support for the immune system and aids in sulfur metabolism, particularly in connective tissue.

MycoFusions® Maitake, Reishi and Shiitake mushroom Purple Corn mycelial biomass: MycoFusions® mushroom Purple Corn mycelial biomass are nutraceutical ingredients produced from several species of medicinal mushrooms grown naturally on deeply pigmented purple corn kernels. Key nutrients from the corn are absorbed by the mushrooms through a novel fermentation process. This patented process results in mushroom superfoods which not only contain glyconutrients such as beta-glycan normally found in mushrooms, but also powerful phytonutrients from the purple corn including anthocyanins and antioxidants. The merging of the health supporting properties of both plants produces nutraceutical products with unique blends of properties and benefits.
see Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) 
see Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) 
see Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) 

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC): The acetylated form of the amino acid L-cysteine. NAC is a precursor to glutathione, a powerful antioxidant present in all cells. Glutathione itself is not well absorbed, however, N-acetylcysteine is well absorbed and is incorporated into glutathione once in the cells. NAC is able to raise glutathione levels better than glutathione supplementation by itself. Glutathione is a tripeptide made up of three amino acids, glycine, L-cysteine and L-glutamate. It functions as a coenzyme in many biochemical reactions.

Naringin extract: Naringin is one of the citrus bioflavonoids. Bioflavonoids are colorful pigments found in plants, which belong to a larger group of phytochemicals called polyphenols. Naringin appears to influence lipid metabolism by helping activate fatty acid oxidation and helping inhibit synthesis of triglycerides and fatty acids in the liver.

Nettles extract (leaf – Urtica dioica): Nettle, or stinging nettle, is a perennial plant growing in temperate and tropical areas around the world. Nettle has a well-known reputation for giving a painful sting when skin come in contact with the hairs and bristles on the leaves and stems. It is a common ingredient in herbal products produced in Germany for rheumatic complaints and inflammatory conditions, especially for urinary tract and prostate. Nettle’s main chemicals include acetylcholine, agglutinins, alkaloids, astragalin, butyric acid, caffeic acids, carbonic acid, chlorogenic acid, chlorophyll, choline, coumaric acid, folacin, formic acid, histamine, lectins, lecithin, lignans, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, pantothenic acid, quercetin, serotonin, sitosterols, succinic acid, and terpenes.

Niacin: B vitamin important in all steps essential for energy production and utilization, tissue and organ function. Niacin is involved in making important tissue and body components. Niacin also promotes release of energy from foods and proper nervous system functioning.

Oatgrass extract (leaf/stem – Avena sativa): The well-known cereal grass from which the grain oats are obtained. Besides utilizing the grain of this grass as food, the leaves and stalks of the exhibit beneficial properties. Oat grasses are used to assist in managing stress and anxiety and contain many nutrients the body requires to build itself including manganese, zinc, silicon, calcium, phosphorus and vitamins A, B-1, B-2 and E.

Olive Leaf: Olea europaea L., an evergreen tree characterized by gray-green leaves and small, dark purple oval fruit, is cultivated throughout the Mediterranean basin. The olive tree has been esteemed throughout history and documentation of traditional medicinal uses abound. Primary constituents are secoindoids including oleuropein, as well as hydroxytyrosol and various polyphenols, triterpenes and flavonoids. Olive leaves have been demonstrated to have antimicrobial-particularly antiviral, antioxidant, vasodilatory, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and cardiovascular benefits.

Omega-3 fatty acids: Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential to the maintenance of health.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) – an omega-3 fatty acid (C20:5) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) – an omega-3 fatty acid (C22:6) present in large amounts in fish oils. Both are inefficiently synthesized in the body from alpha-linolenic acid and are metabolized to eicosanoids. Eicosanoids are hormone-like compounds such as thromboxane, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, that are important regulators of vital body functions such as blood pressure, smooth muscle contraction (e.g., labor and heart rhythm), blood clotting, immune response inflammation and secretions of the stomach. DHA is especially present in the retina and brain.

L-ornithine is a nonessential amino acid that is important in the urea cycle. It is produced in the body when L-arginine is metabolized during the production of urea. L-ornithine may play a role in protein synthesis through the enhanced production of human growth hormone. Ornithine naturally occurs in fish, meat, eggs and dairy.
Pantothenic acid, Vitamin B-5: A B vitamin involved in the metabolism and efficient utilization of fats, hormones, and components necessary for immune function. Involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates, and the formation and breakdown of fatty acids in the body.

Passionflower (herb/flower – Passiflora incarnata): Passionflower is a perennial creeping vine, native to the tropical and semi-tropical southern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America. It is now cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, including Florida, Guatemala, and India. Studies have pointed to the flavonoids in passionflower as the primary constituents responsible for its relaxing and anxiolytic effects.

Peanuts (seed – Arachis hypogaea): Widely cultivated in tropical and warm temperate regions around the world, having yellow flowers on stalks that bend over so that the seed pods ripen underground. The edible, nutlike, oily seed of this plant is used for food and as a source of oil. Peanut flour (partially defatted) is made by removing much of the oil and grinding the de-fatted residue into a fine powder. This powder is available in a range of roast levels, imparting upon products anything from bland to extremely strong peanut flavor. This ingredient provides a good source of protein to be used in formulations having a peanut flavor with reduced oil and fat content.

L-Phenylalanine: An essential amino acid involved in protein synthesis and the synthesis of L-tyrosine that serves as a precursor of epinephrine and thyroxine. Helps improve mental energy and focus.

Phase 2®Phase 2 is a natural extract of white kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, clinically demonstrated to delay the digestion and absorption of starchy carbohydrates without affecting the digestion of healthy carbs such as fruit and whole grains. Studies have shown that Phase 2 inhibits the activity of the digestive enzyme, alpha amylase, and allows a portion of ingested carbohydrates to pass through the digestive system without being broken down into a form the body can readily utilize. This inhibitory process may help lower the glycemic index and reduce the caloric impact of ingested carbohydrate foods. Phase 2 may assist in weight control when used in conjunction with a sensible diet and exercise program.

PhosphoLean: PhosphoLean is a proprietary complex of N-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (NOPE) derived from soy phospholipid and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from standardized green tea extract. This patented blend is associated with decreased appetite and satiety, increased fat oxidation and supports metabolic efficiency. (PhosphoLean™ is a registered trademark of Chemi Nutra and is protected under US Patent No. 20100179107 and other patents pending.)

Phosphorus: An essential mineral that participates in pH balance and is a component of many enzyme systems. It is essential for energy metabolism, enhances use of other nutrients, is an important component in phospholipids in cell membranes, is critical for bone and tooth enamel development and helps regulate fluid balance.

Phytosterols: Plants produce sterols similar to cholesterol in the animal world to stabilize their cell walls. While structurally similar to cholesterol, phytosterols reduce the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is associated with atherosclerosis. They presumably act by blocking cholesterol absorption. Phytosterols are found in a variety of plants including canola, sunflower, cotton and corn as well as others. Examples of phytosterols include beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol.

Polydextrose: Polydextrose is a polysaccharide synthesized by random polymerization of glucose, sorbitol, and a suitable acid catalyst at a high temperature and partial vacuum. It is used widely in many countries as a bulking agent and as a lower-energy ingredient in a variety of foods. Polydextrose is not digested or absorbed in the small intestine, and a large portion is excreted in the feces. Studies with polydextrose show physiologic effects consistent with those of dietary fiber. Polydextrose is partially fermented in the large intestine, leading to increased fecal bulk, reduced transit time, softer stools, and lower fecal pH (4–9). Fermentation of polydextrose also leads to the growth of favorable microflora, diminished putrefactive microflora, and enhanced production of short-chain fatty acids.

Potassium: A vital mineral element that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and supports metabolic processes leading to energy production. Potassium is the principal positive ion inside of cells of the body and is involved in nerve conduction, muscle contraction, and normal kidney function. A deficiency of potassium causes weakness, fatigue, heart arrhythmias, paralysis, and kidney malfunctions.

Potassium bicarbonate: The potassium salt of bicarbonate. It produces improved mineral balance, reduces bone resorption and increases the rate of bone formation.

Probiotic culture: A blend of seven kinds of beneficial bacterial microorganisms of human origin consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Bifidobacterium bificum, Bifidobacterium longum, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, This probiotic culture provides strains for the entire intestinal tract (large and small intestines), has natural gastric and bile resistence and is freeze dried for further shelf stability. Clinical studies have demonstrated pathogen inhibition profiles for strains in this culture.

Protein and peptide concentrate: A special protein blend consisting of whey protein concentrate, calcium caseinate, milk protein isolate, L-glutamine, L-lysine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine. It is an important energy source, crucial in functions such as formation of muscles, bones, skin and organs, blood clotting, maintenance of fluid balance, regulation of pH balance in the blood, hormone and enzyme production, immune function, formation of visual pigments and cell repair

Protein: Protein is made from building blocks called amino acids linked together in a chain. Of the 20 amino acids found in the body, nine are “essential” because they have to be consumed in the diet (the body cannot make them). Proteins perform myriad essential functions for the body including supplying energy and building and repairing tissues. They are highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight.

Psyllium husk powder:Psyllium is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially as a 100 percent natural fiber that helps restore regularity. Psyllium is highly absorbent and has a high viscosity.

Pyridoxine HCL: (See Vitamin B-6)

Quercetin: A flavonoid found almost ubiquitously in food plants. It possesses intrinsic features to function as a natural antioxidant. It exhibits cellular properties that may be involved in interactions with immune cells and support of the immune system.

Red clover – Standardized to isoflavones. (flower/leaf – Trifolium pratense): An herb containing a class of phytochemicals known as isoflavones. The principal isoflavones found in red clover are biochanin A and formononetin which are metabolized to the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, respectively, and are thought to demonstrate weak estrogenic activity.

Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum): Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) is an edible mushroom. Scientific investigations have repeatedly confirmed this mushroom’s beneficial effects on health in general. Active components in Reishi selectively stimulate the production of cytokines involved in the activation of immune cells and immune responses.

Resveratrol:  A phytoalexin polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries, and peanuts. It is a potent antioxidant that modulates cell signaling and exhibits properties beneficial for neurological, hepatic, and cardiovascular systems. It also modifies eicosanoid synthesis, inhibits activated immune cells, and inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) via its inhibitory effects on nuclear factor B (NF- B) or the activator protein-1 (AP-1). Resveratrol is reported to slow aging in simple eukaryotes and has been suggested as a potential calorie restriction mimetic. Resveratrol mimics the beneficial effects of caloric restriction and extends longevity in yeast, nematodes, and flies. Resveratrol has been reported to be a sirtuin agonist, and this property has been proposed to account for its anti-aging effects.

Trans-Resveratrol: Polygonum cuspidatum root (also known as Japanese knotweed) is the trans- isomer of resveratrol. Resveratrol appears to be well-absorbed by humans, but its bioavailability is low because it is rapidly metabolized and eliminated. Of the two resveratrol isomers, cis- and trans-, thetrans- configuration is the more biologically active isomer.

Riboflavin, Vitamin B-2: Is an important component in coenzymes participating in many enzyme reactions; important for the metabolism of fat and carbohydrate; helps in red blood cell formation; promotes the release of energy from foods; essential in nervous system function

D-Ribose (related compound deoxyribose): D-ribose is classified as a group of monosaccharides, aldoses, pentoses and reducing sugars that are building blocks of nucleic acid RNA (Ribose). It allows cells to greatly increase adenine nucleotide salvage and de novo synthesis while preserving nucleotide pools and increasing concentrations of ADP and ATP. D-Ribose is rapidly metabolized and converted into body glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway. D-ribose aids in restoring energy and supports cardiovascular health.

Rice flour: A flour made from ground rice (Oryza sativa), containing little to no fat, no cholesterol, and minimal sodium. Rice contains all essential amino acids, and is a good source of B-complex vitamins and essential minerals.

Rice bran: A thin brown outer layer milled from rice (Oryza sativa), when white rice is made, which serves as a source of fiber. Research has shown positive effects of rice bran on laxation, cholesterol reduction, and renal calcium reduction. Research also indicates that rice bran and rice bran oil reduce low-density lipoproteins (LDL), often referred to as the “bad cholesterol.”

Rice syrup: Rice syrup is an extremely versatile and relatively healthy sweetener which is derived by culturing rice with enzymes to break down the starches, then straining off the liquid and cooking it until the desired consistency is reached. The final product is roughly 50% soluble complex carbohydrates, 45% maltose, and 3% glucose. The glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream immediately, the maltose takes up to one and a half hours to be digested, and the complex carbohydrates take from two to three hours to be digested and absorbed, providing a steady supply of energy.

Rolled oats: The familiar form of the cereal oats of the genus Avena of the family Gramineae (grass family) sold at the market as oatmeal. Rolled oats are steamed and pressed flat with steel rollers to shorten cooking time. They are a prime source of the complex carbohydrates that help to sustain energy. They contain about 50% more protein than bulgur and twice as much as brown rice. They contain selenium, thiamine, phosphorus, and manganese, as well as copper, folic acid, vitamin E and zinc. Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat and is particularly high in soluble fiber.

Sage extract – Standardized to polyphenols, (leaf – Salvia officinalis): Sage is a widely used herb and its extracts contain a variety of polyphenols, some of which are also found in tea. The polyphenols in combination with caffeine promote energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Sage constituents possess immunomodulatory effects and its polyphenols exhibit antioxidant effects. The components of sage extracts affect brain cell receptors, which has implications for modulating appetite and food intake.

Sage possesses liver protective effects and stimulates the digestive tract as well as containing substances with cardioprotective properties. Sage extract has been used as a stimulant and diuretic. Components of sage extracts reduce body weight gain and the accumulation of epididymal fat weight. They suppress pancreatic lipase activity and fat (triglyceride) accretion, which aid in body weight reduction. They also reduce NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB), a transcription factor involved in obesity. Sage also possesses anti-diabetic and insulin-like activities.

Sage has a long history of use as a memory-enhancing agent coupled with cholinergic properties and its extract is reputed to produce cognitive enhancement. Clinical studies show the efficacy of sage extract in improving cognitive function and performance, ascribed to its inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinestrase. Its effects in increasing acetylcholine levels in the brain might have implications for appetite and food intake modulation, since the interactions between acetylcholine and several other neurotransmitters ultimately determine and regulate food intake. Sage extracts influence GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain), receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites in these receptors, which modulate appetite and food intake. GABA plays an important role in controlling energy balance within the central nervous system.

Saw palmetto extract – Standardized to fatty acids. (berry – Serenoa repens): An extract of the dried ripe fruit from the American dwarf palm tree, which is found in the coastal areas of Florida and southeastern United States. Fatty acid and sterol constituents of saw palmetto berries are believed to be the biologically active factors. Clinical studies suggest that the extracts improve functional urinary flow. Some of the suggested mechanisms of action include 5α-reductase inhibition, intraprostatic androgen receptor blockade, alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonism, interference with the action of prolactin, diminution of androgen-binding globulin, and modulation of prostate cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities (arachidonic acid cascade). Alpha-adrenoceptor and calcium channel blocking activities are believed to reduce the smooth muscle contractions of the bladder sphincter.

Schisandra extract – Standardized to schisandrins. (fruit – Schisandra chinensis): A member of the Magnoliaceae family, a woody climbing vine with numerous clusters of bright red berries. It is distributed throughout northern and northeast China and the adjacent regions of Russia and Korea. The major constituents in schisandra are lignans. Schisandra is an adaptogenic plant used for increasing resistance to stress, increasing energy levels, physical performance and endurance. It improves liver function and is also used as a liver protectant. Schisandra has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (See Adaptogen)

Selenium: An essential mineral involved in factors mediating the formation of thyroid hormone. Selenium is also part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase that serves to protect proteins, cell membranes, lipids, and nucleic acids from oxidative stress in tissues and cells.

Senna extract – Standardized to sennosides. (leaf – Cassia angustifolia): Contains the anthroquinones, sennosides A & B, that appear during the drying process of the extract. Sennosides cause contraction of the colon lining, providing a laxative effect. Senna should only be consumed occasionally, not on a daily basis.

Shave grass extract – Standardized to silica. (aerial – Equisetum arvense): Also known as the horsetail plant, this member of the fern family grows in wet to moderately dry areas mostly in the Northern hemisphere. The high levels of silicon and other minerals found in this plant help support the use of calcium in the body and play a role in the production of skin and connective tissue.

Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes): Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom rich in vitamins, fiber and amino acids and low in fat. This mushroom contains a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties. Polysaccharides enhance cell-mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro, and act as biological response modifiers. The polysaccharides are believed to induce gene expression of various immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors.

Silicon: A trace mineral. In the body silicon is associated with growth and development of bone, connective tissue and cartilage. Silicon is required for synthesis of L-proline and L-hydroxyproline, which are a part of the primary structure of collagen. It is also needed for the production of glycosaminoglycans.

Skullcap extract – Standardized to baicalin. (root – Scutellaria baicalensis): A traditional herb used extensively in China that contains a pharmacologically active ingredient, baicalein, in a sugar-bound form, baicalin. The components of this extract are believed to possess immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

Sodium: One of the most abundant minerals in the body. Sodium chloride or salt is important in many ways. It is an essential part of the diet of both humans and animals and is a part of most bodily fluids, such as blood, sweat, and tears. It aids digestion by providing chlorine for hydrochloric acid, a small but essential part of human digestive fluid. Sodium chloride is essential to life on Earth. Most biological tissues and body fluids contain a varying amount of salt. The concentration of sodium ions in the blood is directly related to the regulation of safe body-fluid levels. Propagation of nerve impulses by signal transduction is regulated by sodium ions.

Soybeans (Roasted) / Soy protein isolate: The soybean is an annual leguminous plant (Glycine max), widely cultivated for forage and soil improvement and for its nutritious seeds. Soybeans are used to produce a wide variety of products including tofu (soybean curd), soybean oil, soy flour, soymilk and soy sauce. The soybean provides what is considered a complete protein because it includes all nine essential amino acids. Soybeans are rich in many naturally occurring phytonutrients including isoflavones and saponins.

Soy lecithin: Lecithin plays a number of roles in heart health, including the lowering of total and LDL cholesterol levels. The choline delivered by lecithin can help reduce high homocysteine levels in the blood – which can be associated with artery damage, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease and bone fracture.

Sucralose: Sucralose is a potent non-caloric sweetener that is a heat stable derivative of sucrose. It is also known by the trade name Splenda. It is 500-700 times sweeter than sucrose and has been extensively researched to establish its safety profile. It was first approved for use in Canada (where it has sometimes been marketed as Splendar) in 1991. Subsequent approvals came in Australia in 1993, in New Zealand in 1996, in the United States in 1998, and in the European Union in 2004. The safety of sucralose has been confirmed by leading medical, scientific and regulatory authorities around the world including; the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Joint (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization) Expert Committee on Food Additives, European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Food, Health Canada and Food Standards Australia/New Zealand. As of 2005, it has been approved in over 40 countries, including Canada, Brazil, China, and Japan.

Sugar: A sweet crystalline or powdered substance, white when pure, most commonly consisting of sucrose obtained mainly from sugar cane and sugar beets and used in many foods, drinks, and medicines to improve their taste. Also called table sugar. In addition, sugar can be defined as any of a class of water-soluble crystalline carbohydrates, including glucose, fructose, maltose sucrose and lactose, having a characteristically sweet taste and classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides.

Sugar alcohols (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol): are carbohydrates with a chemical structure that partially resembles sugar and partially resembles alcohol, but they do not contain ethanol as alcoholic beverages do. While they provide a sweetness like sucrose they are slowly and incompletely absorbed and metabolized by the body, and consequently contribute fewer calories. Some sugar alcohols used by AdvoCare include maltitol and lactitol.

Suma extract – Standardized to saponins. (root – Pfaffia paniculata): Suma is a large ground vine with a deep root system that has a propensity to spread. It can be found in various tropical locations such as the Amazon Basin in Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Three principle active ingredients have been identified in Suma: pfaffic acid, phytosterols (mainly beta-ecdysone), and pfaffosides (saponins). Beta-ecdysone is a plant phytosteroid hormone found to enhance protein biosynthesis and other anabolic (rebuilding) activities in animals. In addition beta-Ecdysone has shown analgesic and anti-diabetic activities in human studies

Sustamine (L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine): Sustamine is a dipeptide of the amino acids, L-alanine and L-glutamine. This dipeptide enhances electrolyte and water absorption resulting in higher serum bioavailability and absorption of L-glutamine, compared to L-glutamine alone. It plays an important role in enhancing the immune system, muscle protein synthesis and energy production through gluconeogenesis. (Sustamine™ is a registered trademark of Kyowa Hakko Bio Co., Ltd.)

Svetol®: Svetol is a non-roasted extract of select decaffeinated green coffee beans (fruit – Coffea canephora robusta P.), a variety which contains a high level and specific ratio of more than twelve cholorgenic acids, the components responsible for the bitterness of coffee. Chlorogenic acids in coffee, especially 5-caffeoylquinic acid mainly found in green coffee beans, inhibits glucose-6-phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase), a hepatic enzyme involved in the release of glucose from the liver into blood circulation, thereby helping regulate glucose metabolism and support the body’s breakdown of fat reserves for energy. The Coffea canephora robusta P. variety of coffee typically grows in Central and West Africa, South-East Asia and Brazil.

Svetol® is property of Naturex

Tapioca starch: Tapioca starch is an easily digested starchy polysaccharide extracted from the root of the cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant. Tapioca is often used in pudding and as a thickener/stabilizer in food products. It can withstand long cooking times without breaking down. Tapioca becomes clear and gel-like when cooked and dissolves completely when used as a thickener.

Taurine: An amino acid found primarily in the brain and the eye. It may aid in stabilizing cells and tissues through its antioxidative properties, and in protecting the nervous system. It may a play a role in physiologic functions involved in detoxification in the cells of the body as well as helps maintain blood lipid levels and stabilizing blood platelets. It provides energy, and aids in mental focus.

Black tea extract – See: Tea (leaf – Camellia sinensis)

Green tea extract – See: Tea (leaf – Camellia sinensis)

Oolong tea extract – See: Tea (leaf – Camellia sinensis)

White tea extract – See: Tea (leaf – Camellia sinensis)

Tea (leaf – Camellia sinensis): There are three principal types of manufactured tea, namely black (fully fermented), green (unfermented), and oolong (partially fermented). The term “fermentation” refers to the oxidative transformations undergone by tea phenolics involving natural browning reactions induced by oxidizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidases) within the plant cell. The manufacture of black tea ensues oxidation of fresh tea leaf components, due to the activation of polyphenol oxidases, which oxidize susceptible tea leaf polyphenol moieties culminating in the formation of brown pigments, and this process develops the color and aroma of the liquid. The production of green tea comprises the rolling and steaming of tender tea leaves, a process that minimizes the activation of enzymes and consequently oxidation. Oolong tea is a partially fermented product having components common to both green and black teas. It contains both native and oxidized catechins, its composition reflecting an intermediate range between that of green and black teas.

Black tea extract – Standardized for theaflavin, (leaf – Camellia sinensis): Black tea is a fully fermented preparation of tea leaves. During the manufacture of black tea, a major proportion of monomeric free catechins in the fresh green tea leaf undergoes oxidative changes culminating in the generation of a series of compounds, including bisflavanols, theaflavins, epitheaflavic acids, and thearubigins, which impart the characteristic taste and color properties of black tea. This extract is a source of theaflavins and other ingredients, which are oxidized catechins. The theaflavins exhibit a number of pharmacological actions in cells, which have implications for enhancing metabolic rate. Black tea also contains some native (unoxidized) catechins.

Black tea extracts exhibits anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects in animals. The oral administration of a black tea extract resulted in a decrease in body and liver weight gain and food intake in rats. The administration of a black tea extract as a drink attenuated plasma triacylglycerol levels and induced reduction in weight gain in sucrose fed rats. Pu-Erh black tea (products of Yunnan district, China) consumption caused a reduction in plasma triacylglycerol levels in rats ingesting this tea extract. This tea appears to stimulate lipolysis in the adipose tissue, and thus could have an effect in inducing weight loss. Black tea enhances vasodilation and blood flow in human subjects, an action with implications for lipolysis. Studies have documented that black tea ingestion reduces triacylglycerol in human subjects carrying specific alleles. Gallic acid present in black tea extract suppresses food intake in animals. Black tea components such as theaflavins, modulates AP1 (activator protein 1), a nuclear binding protein (transcription factor), an action relevant to weight loss. They also inhibit IkappaB kinase (IKK), an enzyme activity implicated in the promotion of obesity.

Green tea extract – Standardized to polyphenols and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). (leaf – Camellia sinensis): Green tea is an herb that differs from black and oolong teas because it is not fermented. Steaming fresh leaves at high temperatures produces the extract. It is rich in polyphenols, flavanols and catechins, the most widely studied is EGCG. This extract is a source of one of the highest levels of organically bound fluorine, a key mineral for bone health. Green tea serves as an antioxidant by reducing oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. It also provides a source of energy. There is a vast array of studies documenting the effects of green tea extracts, especially EGCG and other catechins, on gene expression leading to a restoration and maintenance of health. Joint health, heart health, cognitive and mental functions and chemoprevention are some of the attributes of dietary supplementation with these catechins.

Oolong tea extract – Standardized to polyphenols. (leaf – Camellia sinensis): The characteristic that separates oolong tea from green tea and black tea is that it is partially fermented. Green tea is unfermented and black tea is fully fermented. Because oolong tea is partially fermented it contains unique levels of tea flavanols commonly referred to as catechins. During the partial fermentation processes, small amounts of polyphenols are formed such as theaflavin. Oolong tea has both the active catechin components of unfermented green tea and the fermented black tea polyphenols.

Oolong tea is able to support energy levels, support lipolysis and provide antioxidant activity through its unique combination of catechins and polyphenols. Oolong tea increases energy expenditure and fat oxidation. It appears to suppress food intake and weight gain based on experimental animal studies.

A water extract of oolong tea prevented the obesity and fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet in mice. This extract of oolong tea, in concert with caffeine, accentuated norepinephrine-induced lipolysis in isolated fat cells. The consumption of oolong tea over a 6-week period resulted in significant weight loss in women, thus exemplifying the clinical efficacy of oolong tea. The consumption of oolong tea promoted energy expenditure and fat oxidation in human subjects. Tea polyphenols inhibit the activity of catechol-O-methyl transferase, which inactivates catecholamines.

White tea extract – Standardized to polyphenols. (leaf – Camellia sinensis): White tea extract is derived from unfermented tea leaves and young and tender tea buds. It is a source of flavan compounds, which are known as tea catechins. The principal catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and other tea catechins are potent antioxidants and display immunomodulatory effects in experimental animals. The oral administration of tea catechins and caffeine to human subjects stimulated energy expenditure and fat oxidation, thus indicating the potential of tea components to influence body weight and body composition. Human studies report that ingestion of a mixture of tea catechins in the absence of caffeine promotes weight reduction. Tea polyphenols inhibit the activities of gastric and pancreatic lipases, an action with possible implications for attenuating fat accretion. Evidence indicates that EGCG is an immune enhancer. Tea components activate lymphocytes (T-cells) associated with immune function enhancement and stimulate their proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. Tea catechins induce apoptosis, modulate cell signaling and regulate cell cycle events. Tea polyphenols inhibit the activity of catechol-O-methyl transferase, which inactivates catecholamines.

L-Theanine: It is the most prominent amino acid present in tea leaves. It is an amino acid unique to tea. L-Theanine is derived from the amino acid L-glutamic acid. It is believed to confer a relaxation effect on humans and has antioxidant activity. L-Theanine is a precursor of ethylamine, an antigen, considered to have a beneficial immune effect.

Thiamine, Vitamin B-1: Essential for converting carbohydrates from the diet to energy. Needed for normal functioning of the nervous system and muscles, including heart muscle.

Tulsi extract – Standardized for ursolic acid (leaf – Ocimum sanctum):  Tulsi is native to India, where it is grown as an aromatic perennial flowering shrub, and it has been used for thousands of years in treating a wide range of health-related conditions. Tulsi is also grown as an annual herb in temperate climates. The fragrance of the leaves is spicy and complex, similar to clove, and after drying, the leaves are often made into a tea. Tulsi is an adaptogenic herb having properties in common with polyphenol containing plants such as ginseng and eleuthero. The results of some studies indicate that O. sanctum induces a state of non-specific increased resistance against a variety of stress-induced biological changes in animals. A limited number of studies have shown that the herb also has a normalizing influence on blood pressure and blood sugar imbalances. Eugenol is one of the active constituents present in O. sanctum and may be responsible for many of the reported beneficial effects.

Turmeric extract – Standardized to curcumin. (root – Curcuma longa): A spice, which contains curcuminoids, a group of bioactive phenolic compounds. The major bioactive curcuminoid, curcumin, is a yellow pigment containing a diferulic acid (diferuloyl methane) derivative. Ferulic acid is ubiquitous in plants and arises from the metabolism of the aromatic amino acids, L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. Curcumin is a potent antioxidant. Evidence indicates that curcumin exhibits a variety of effects beneficial for health and for events that help in potentiating immune function. Curcumin is a modulator of the ubiquitous transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B which is involved in immune regulation.

L-Tyrosine: A non-essential, sparing amino acid* found in dietary proteins. It is synthesized in the body from L-phenylalanine, and is believed to improve mental energy & focus by serving as a precursor for the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and thyroid hormones.
*Non-essential unless a person has PKU (phenylketonuria), then this amino acid becomes essential.

Valerian – Standardized to valerenic acids. (root – Valeriana officinalis): A perennial herb native to North America, Asia and Europe that has been used traditionally to help produce a calming and relaxing (anxiolytic) effect. The chemical composition of valerian includes sesquiterpenes (including valeric acid), iridoids (valepotriates), alkaloids, furanofuran lignans, and free amino acids such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), L-tyrosine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine. Valepotriates are known to have sedative, hypnotic and spasmolytic effects. Studies suggest that valerian must be consumed repeatedly for one to two weeks before a benefit is noticed.

Vanadium (Vanadyl sulfate): Vanadium is an ultra-trace mineral found in the human diet and the human body. It is essential for some animals and thought to be essential in humans. Deficiency symptoms in these animals include growth retardation, bone deformities, and infertility. Vanadium may play a role in building bones and teeth. It has strong glucose lowering (anti-hyperglycemic) effects, and is a common supplement used to enhance weight training.

Vitamin A: It is commonly known as the anti-infective vitamin, because it is required for normal functioning of the immune system. It is required for the production of blood components (red blood cell production). Vitamin A is necessary for a broad range of bodily functions including production of visual pigments, and maintenance of health in many cells of the body.

Vitamin B-vitamin complex: Refers to the combination of water soluble (B) vitamins including thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and pantothenic acid. (See individual vitamins). The B vitamins as well as folic acid, in addition to providing a non-caffeinated source of energy, are also highly effective agents that provide positive support to the epigenome. Animal studies have indicated that diets supplemented with these nutrients can reverse the genetic disposition to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Agouti mouse model. Molecular tags on the agouti gene responsible for controlling satiety were corrected by these nutrients.

Vitamin B1:See Thiamine)

Vitamin B2:See Riboflavin)

Vitamin B-5:See Pantothenic acid)

Vitamin B-6, Pyridoxine HCL: This water-soluble vitamin is essential for protein metabolism, nervous system and immune functions. It is necessary for the synthesis of hormones and red blood cells. There are six active forms of vitamin B-6. The first step in coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis (the conversion of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid) requires vitamin B-6 in the form of pyridoxal-5′-phospate (PLP). Vitamin B-6 supplementation was found to be effective in lowering blood homocysteine levels after an oral dose of methionine (methionine load test) was given, suggesting that it may play a role in the metabolism of homocysteine. Managing the blood levels of homocysteine is important for maintaining cardiovascular health. PLP plays a vital role in the function of approximately 100 enzymes that catalyze essential biochemical reactions in the human body. PLP functions as a coenzyme for glycogen phosphorylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the release of glucose stored in the muscle as glycogen.

Vitamin B-12, Cyanocobalamin: Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for processing carbohydrates, proteins and fats and which is vital for blood (red blood cell) formation as well as a healthy nervous system. Vitamin B-12 cannot be absorbed or used by the body until it combines with a special protein produced in the stomach called intrinsic factor. As individuals age they are less able to produce intrinsic factor and consequently there is less vitamin B-12 available to participate in metabolic processes. Vitamin B-12 acts as a coenzyme in the synthesis and repair of DNA. It also works with folic acid in utilizing amino acids and plays a role in one carbon metabolism.

Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic acid): Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catecholamines play a role in mobilizing lipids for oxidation. In addition, vitamin C is required for the production of carnitine, which is essential for the transport of fat to the cellular organelle, mitochondrion, for conversion into energy. Vitamin C is required for the synthesis and activation of various cellular constituents, including enzymes involved in energy metabolism. It also plays a role in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids.

Vitamin C promotes healthy cell function. It is required for the synthesis of collagen, an important structural component of blood vessels, bone, tendons and ligaments. It is vital for the proper functioning of the immune system, especially for the activity of the white blood cells, which influence metabolism. It is required for synthesis and activation of some hormones. One of these hormones is the thyroid hormone, thyroxin, which regulates the body’s metabolic rate, and consequently body mass.

Vitamin D, Cholecalciferol: Several structurally related forms exist including cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). It is essential for effective and optimal calcium absorption from the intestine, the efficient utilization of calcium by the body, and maintaining calcium balance. It helps build and regulate bone mass and maintain bone health, and helps maintain blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Regulation of blood calcium levels is vital for bone growth, and maintenance of bone density. Vitamin D can be made in the skin on exposure to sunlight.

Vitamin E: A family of eight naturally occurring compounds-four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) with widely varying degrees of biological activity. The most active form is the “d” isomer of alpha-tocopherol. Recent research shows that other forms, such as gamma-tocopherol may also be important to the body. It acts as a powerful antioxidant, particularly protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids within cell membrane phospholipids and in plasma lipoproteins from oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an essential nutrient for cell and tissue health, which may have a role in blood flow, immune function and blood cell functioning and in protecting against cellular stress. The succinate form of d-alpha tocopherol as well as mixed tocotrienols and gamma tocopherol are used in some AdvoCare products.

Vitamin K: This essential vitamin exists in several structurally related forms including phytonadione, menaquinone and menadione. It is a cofactor that activates at least three proteins involved in bone mineralization, formation, repair and health. Vitamin K is also essential for synthesizing the liver protein that controls blood clotting. There are some indications that vitamin K may decrease the incidence or severity of osteoporosis and slow bone loss. In the intestines it also assists in converting glucose to glycogen, which can then be stored in the liver.

White Willow extract – Standardized to salicin. (bark – Salix alba): A deciduous shrub native to Britain, Central and Southern Europe, Asia and North America. Willow bark was used in the Middle Ages to relieve fevers and pain. The glycosidic constituent salicylic acid is related to acetylsalicylic acid and is similar in biological activities, exerting analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects.

Wild yam extract – Standardized to diosgenin. (root – Dioscorea villosa): A twining vine native to the central southeastern US and found less frequently in the Appalachian region. Wild yams are a rich source of saponins including diosgenin that have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects and which may reduce exercise-induced fatigue. They may also exhibit weak hormonal activity.

Xanthan gum (gum – Xanthomonas campestris): A high molecular weight polysaccharide possessing a high viscosity at low concentrations with very low caloric value and excellent binding properties. Exhibits laxative and cholesterol and glucose lowering properties. It is widely used in foods as a thickening, suspending and emulsifying agent.

Zinc: An essential mineral that serves as a micronutrient thought to be essential in maintaining the integrity of the immune system. It plays a role in immune cell functions and immune responses and confers immunocompetence. Zinc is required for the activity of the thymic hormone, thymulin, produced by the thymus gland, involved in immune function. It is found in high concentrations within the eye, especially in the retina. Zinc deficiency has been shown to have negative effects in vision. Zinc supplementation helps support healthy eye function, acting as an indirect antioxidant in the retina. May improve glucose tolerance by increasing insulin like growth factor.